# Formulas

A main use of a spreadsheet is to calculate numbers. The basics of creating a calculation can be as simple as adding two figures in a single cell. To do this we create an expression called a *formula* in the cell that will display the result.

## Using numbers

Important – there are no spaces in *Formulas*

- Click in the
**cell**where you want the result of your*formula*. A3 - Type equal symbol = this alerts Excel that you are starting a
*formula*

- Type in the first number
**456** - Type the
**+**plus symbol - Type in the next number
**239**

- To complete the
*formula*, press the**Enter key**

Note: The result is displayed in the cell but in the **Formula** **Bar** you can still see the *Formula*.

## Using Cell References

When a *formula* includes figures from other cell, its called a *Cell* *Reference*.

- Type the figures you want to tally into separate cells e.g. at the top of column
**A**.

- Click the mouse in the
**cell**where you want the result e.g. A3 - Type equal symbol =
- Type in the first
*Cell Reference*“**A1B**”

- Type the plus symbol
**+”** - Type in the next
*Cell Reference*“**A2”**

- To complete the
*formula,*press**Enter**

## Using Point and Click

- Click in the
**cell**where you want the result of your*formula*g. A3 - Type equal symbol
**=**

- Click your mouse on the first
**CELL**to be referenced in the*formula*(**A1)** - Type the plus symbol
**+** - Click in the second
**cell**to be referenced (**A2),**continue**adding extra cells**as required.

- To complete the
*formula,*press the**Enter key**

# Functions

Efficient* formulas* don’t always rely on expressions with arithmetic operators (addition, subtraction etc). Instead Excel provides many prebuilt *Functions* that can be quickly typed or added to a *formula*. Such as the function ‘SUM’, which calculates the sum of a range of cells. For example, to add the range of cells between A1 to A10 the *Formula *expression is this: “=SUM(A1:A10)”.

Functions can be added to a formula by clicking the ** fx **symbol on the

**Formula Bar**or selected from the Formulas ribbon. Some of the most common Functions can be quickly tallied using

**AutoSum**, found on the Home ribbon in the Editing tool-group.

### AutoSum

- Click in the
**cell**where you want the answer - Without releasing the mouse,
**move it up or across**the range of cells to be included in the answer - Release the mouse

- Click on the
**Home Tab** - Click on the
**AutoSum**tool in the**Editing Group**

- The formula in the above example will appear in the cell ie,
**=SUM(A1:A3)**

*Tip**: you can use the AutoSum tool or type this formula in yourself, remember – no spaces*